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Unread 12/26/2001, 10:08 AM   #1
Rafa_Sant
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Question Another temp question, just to be sure

Hi Dr. Ron

Already read your article about temp and salinity, and searched the forum for temp swings, but I still need to hear it from you. That's because all the LFS in Puerto Rico insist that the ideal temp for some fishes and corals (except for polyps and mushrooms ) is 78F
Now in the winter my temp swings from 80 to 82 F, but in the summer gets up to 85F. Is this OK ?

Can I successfully keep LPS ?

The same rules applies to fishes ?


Thanks and Happy Holidays

Rafa


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Unread 12/26/2001, 03:54 PM   #2
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Hey Rafa,
That's pretty much the same problem most reefers have around the world. IMO 85 is about tops, but I have read from the Doc that it's ok.

I guess you only have to worry about adequate circulation and surface agitation. The higher the temp, the faster O2 dissolves.

The more surface agitation the more gas exchange you have and then you have little to worry about.

Good Luck


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Unread 12/26/2001, 04:34 PM   #3
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Rafa and Dr. Ron,

PMFJI

With all due respect to the good doctors opinion, there is alot of controversy surrounding this issue. I agree with Ron that coral growth may be greater at higher temps (80-84), and that maintaining such temperatures consistantly will not cause bleaching (sudden rises in temps are implicated in bleaching events).

That said, our aquariums are alot different than the natural reefs. Bulk water movement is nearly non-existant in our tanks, bio-load is high, and our tiny boxes of water are subject to large temp swings if a heater sticks on, a fan stops or a chiller breaks down.

For all of these reasons, I personally choose to maintain my reef aquariums in the 78-80 range, and take particular precautions to prevent temp spikes (a temp controller shuts down my lights if the tem goes over 84). My personal feeling is that I can live with my coral growing a little more slowly to know that pathogens will as well. I also like the safety margin of higher gas solubility if a pump were to fail.

Years of experience by many hobbiests proves that any of the corals that thrive at 82 also thrive at temps in the 78-80 range (and even slightly lower).

Hope this helps.

Adam


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Unread 12/26/2001, 10:44 PM   #4
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Not this crap again!

Originally posted by Adam
With all due respect to the good doctors opinion, there is alot of controversy surrounding this issue.

Hmmm...probably not an opinion but more of a fact based on the past 30+ years of scientific literature dealing with coral physiology, not really much controversy if one can go to the library and read a bit.

I agree with Ron that coral growth may be greater at higher temps (80-84),...

Not "may" but "is" again plenty on that can be found during a quick trip to the library.

(sudden rises in temps are implicated in bleaching events).

Actually, sustained thermal stress and not short term spikes (unless you push 100F) are what cause bleaching events. The NOAA has a nice page on their site that covers "degree heating weeks" that are used to measure the risk of a bleaching event occuring around the globe.

That said, our aquariums are alot different than the natural reefs. Bulk water movement is nearly non-existant in our tanks, bio-load is high, and our tiny boxes of water are subject to large temp swings if a heater sticks on, a fan stops or a chiller breaks down.

Speak for yourself, a well thought out system can provide for almost all of the problems you mention. Bulk water movement can be achieved in a closed system by setting up a "flow tank" or several other options. Bio-load is the caretakers responsibilty and can be kept above or below what would be considered natural. Use multiple small heaters and the risk if one sticks on is pretty minimal same can go for fans. If the tank is kept at natural reef temperatures a chiller break down will most likely not be a big deal and the tank will be able to handle a short term spike without blinking an eye.

My personal feeling is that I can live with my coral growing a little more slowly to know that pathogens will as well.

What pathogens would that be? Can you name even one pathogen that will suddenly attack a coral at 84 versus 78? What happens to the immune system of the coral when you unnaturally slow down its metabolism? Try slowing down your own metabolism and get introduced to even the common cold and then see what happens. Also there are plenty of microbes that are kept on the surface of the coral that protect against attacks from outside forces and you are slowing their metabolism as well making it harder for them to defend their turf increasing the likelihood of an onset of disease.


Years of experience by many hobbiests proves that any of the corals that thrive at 82 also thrive at temps in the 78-80 range (and even slightly lower).

Proves it how? I can beat my dog everyday with a stick and he will still be alive..that proves nothing. The only thing it shows is that they are at least keeping them above their lower thermal limit and they have not died, at least not yet. The coldest known reef has an annual average temperature of 77F so you are almost there. The average of all of the reefs in the world is a nice tidy 82F, which interestingly corresponds to the same 82-84F range that growth and health is maximized.

While I am on a rant here....I need to bring up something that has been bothering me. In one of the worthless babble arguements a while back it was stated that somehow the famed coral researcher and taxonomist J.E.N. Veron did not agree or was sceptical that temperature was responsible for the center of diversity being in the Central Indo-Pacific. I have found that was just a plain lie (as were many other statements). In reading through some of his works, he repeats almost verbatum what was printed in the AF article by Dr. Ron regarding temperature and diversity. Actually he mentions temperatures impact and latitudinal attenuation on diversity probably a good 60 times in "Corals in Space and Time" and also goes on to state that a large percentage of the corals found in the equatorial Indo-Pacific region are not found outside the region simply because the temperature in outreaching places such as Fiji is just too cold for their survival. Sound familiar?

End rant here-


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Unread 12/27/2001, 07:37 AM   #5
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Happy Holidays everybody,

Sorry, I didn't meant to bring back an old controvertial topic.

I just want to make sure that if I put an LPS ( I love Frogspawn, Elengance or Hammer ) under that temp they will thrive and grow. I don't like things merely surviving in tank.

I currently have some mushrooms, GSP and a toadstool thats still acclimating (less than a week and is almost fully expanded).

What a good LPS for beginners ?


Thanks,

Rafa


PS: Sorry for the typos


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Unread 12/27/2001, 08:56 AM   #6
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Rafa,

Sorry to get off topic. IMO, your corals will do great if you maintain them anywhere in the 76 to 84 range as long as you avoid big swings.

Saltshop,

Have you read the literature for yourself? Alot of others have, and have a different interpretation.

Your right, sorry for my semantic error. Growth in many species(until you reach an upper thermal limit) is greater at higher temps.

On the issue of sudden vs. sustained temp rises... Again forgive my semantics. The less the temp rise, the longer it takes to induce bleaching, but more than a couple of degrees can cause bleaching in just a few days.

As far as pathogens.... Human physiology is adapted to a regulated temp, corals are adapted to handle the temp range they are normally subjected to. Of course I am not suggesting that pathogens will suddenly go into overdrive at higher temps, but what basis do you have to suggest that corals will be immuno-supressed at lower temps?

Our tanks..... I agree with everything you said, but how many aquarists do you know that maintain normal or lower than normal stocking levels compared to natural reefs with any true bulk water flow???? Keep in mind the billions of gallons that ebb and flow every tide! Do you surge hundreds of gallons of fresh clean water through your system daily? I sure don't!

Coral growth in captive systems has been documented to be equal (and even greater) than in the wild. This data is several years old, when pretty much no one maintained a reef tank above 80.

As far as Veron's books are concerned... I won't speak about the exact statements made, but in Corals of the World, alot of factors affecting maximum diversity are discussed. Temperature is one, but sunlight and geographical features are also important. If temp is the major factor, why is diversity so much less in the tropical atlantic? It is just as warm as the indo pacific, right? It is because the near surface geological structures aren't there for the corals to grow on. Also, why is diversity not the highest in the Red Sea? It gets warmer there than the central Indo Pacific.

My major problem with this whole debat is that beginners aren't getting the whole story. IMO, telling beginners to maintain reef tanks in the mid 80's is irresonsible. Until one has the experience to know how to recognize and handle problems with their tank, they can use every bit of safety margin they can get. I have been doing this for many years, and I recently had significant losses due to a chiller failure. If my tank had been 84 degrees to begin with, I am absolutely sure I would have had nearly 100% mortality in my tank.

The argument that corals are somehow slowly dying at temps below 80-84 just doesn't hold water. Many aquarists (myself included) have watched a wide variety of corals grow very quickly at temps in the 78 degree range. Why would an animal fighting for it's very life waste energy on growth?

While I am on a rant here..... Even if you do believe that the average (over several years) temperature of all the reefs is 82, how long has it been that way in evolutionary terms?? The data is sketchy for surface seawater temps when you go back more than a few years, but we know that average global temps are up in recent years, so wouldn't it follow that near surface sea water temps would be also. This interestingly corresponds to the increase in bleaching events in the last few years.

The temp in Fiji is too cold for the survival of what??? Sure Fiji may not be a the center of maximum diversity, but it is still quite high. Get out your Veron books, and see what the diversity is in southern Japan, which gets much cooler than the 77 degrees you state as the coldest reef known. It certainly is less than the central indo-pacific, but it is much greater than the tropical east atlantic!

I have a great deal of respect for Dr. Ron in terms of his knowledge of invertabrate biology, and I especially appreciate the time he devotes to the hobby. I happen to respectfully disagree that 82-84 degrees is the ideal temperature for everyone to maintain their reef tank at, even if it is the average temperature on the wild reefs. As hard as we try, we will always have alot of animals crammed into a small body of water, and that demands certain compromises. With experience and top notch husbandry, those temps may be fine, and may even be desireable, but it isn't for everyone or every tank.

I'm done now, and won't post any more in this tread. I just want to make sure that everyone (beginners in particular) know that there are valid arguments for both sides, and that they shouldn't make any choice for their system without knowing the ramifications.

Adam


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Unread 12/27/2001, 11:00 AM   #7
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Hi,

Saltshop THANKS!!! for the good information.

Reef corals - and all other coral reef animals - will do better at normal coral reef temperatures, these are the temperatures thay have adapted to over millions of years. The average coral reef temperature in the world (of over 1000 reefs) is 82 deg F. These animals loose between 3 and 5 percent of their metabolic capability for each degree F in temperatre drop. So animals living at 78 have lost between 15 and 25 percent of the their capability to cope with stress, etc., because their metabolic rate is slower.

Bleaching may be initiated by sustained temperature (several days to several weeks) several deg F above the maximum temperature that the animals are normally exposed to. If the animals are maintained at 82-84 degrees F. bleaching generally will not occur until the temperatueres exceed 90 deg. F. If the animals are maintained at 78 degrees, F., bleaching will often occur in the low 80's . Maintain your animals at higher temperatures for insurance sake, if nothing else.

While bulk flow water flow is important for organism health, primarily to bring food to the them in a natural manner, for the little colonies we have in our tank, the effect of this versus any temperature variation is likely to be insignificant.




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Unread 12/27/2001, 11:51 AM   #8
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So, to end this topic once again.
I can keep any coral or fish once it is properly acclimated and cared. Avoiding big temp swings (from 82F to 84F) and providing the proper light and water flow and quality.

Dr. Shimek correct me if I'm wrong and if there any other hint, please let me know.

Hee!! I think I'll give this link:http://www.rshimek.com to every LFS I know. Can't wait to see what they have to say.

Thanks everybody

PS: What the maximun temp swing ?


Rafa


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Unread 12/27/2001, 12:49 PM   #9
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Originally posted by Adam
Adam,

The argument that corals are somehow slowly dying at temps below 80-84 just doesn't hold water. Many aquarists (myself included) have watched a wide variety of corals grow very quickly at temps in the 78 degree range. Why would an animal fighting for it's very life waste energy on growth?

The corals that grow well at low temperatures are primarily species of Pocillopora and Stylopora that have secondary low thermal optima - a secondary growth peak at about 79 to 80 deg. F, in addition to their main growth peak at 84 deg F.

The properties of low temperature mortality are well-known and documented. They happen in all poikilothermic animals and corals are no exception. You may wish to read about them in the reference below.

Prosser, C. L. 1991. Comparative Animal Physiology, 4th ed.. Environmental and metabolic animal physiology. Wiley-Liss, New York, 578 pp.

. Even if you do believe that the average (over several years) temperature of all the reefs is 82, how long has it been that way in evolutionary terms??

The data on average temperatures are available here from measurements of over 1000 reefs compiled before the recent warming events:

Kleypas, J. A., J. W. McManus, and L. A. B. Menez. 1999. Environmental Limits to Coral Reef Development: Where Do We Draw The Line. American Zoologist. 39:146-159.

You may not choose to accept these data, but the scientific community does.

We have good, very precise, data on reef temperatures going back several hundred years, but of course you may choose to ignore those data too.

Lough, J. M. and D. J. Barnes. 1997. Centuries-long records of coral growth on the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Series. 23:149-157.

Quinn, T. M., T. J. Crowley, F. W. Taylor, C. Henin, P. Joannot and Y. Join. 1998. A multicentury stable isotope record from a New Caledonia coral: interannual and decadal sea surface temperature variability in the southwest Pacific since 1657 A.D. Paleoceanography. 13:412-426.

[b] The data is sketchy for surface seawater temps when you go back more than a few years, but we know that average global temps are up in recent years, so wouldn't it follow that near surface sea water temps would be also. [b]

Nice thought. Wrong. But a nice thought. The data on temperatures and growth rates were all collected prior to the bleaching events.

Evolutionarily, coral reef biologist consider that coral diversity has always shown peaks where the water temperatures have been in the low to mid 80 ranges.

[b]The temp in Fiji is too cold for the survival of what??? Sure Fiji may not be a the center of maximum diversity, but it is still quite high. [b/]

Wrong. Fiji is a cooler reef with significantly lower diversity than areas of good coral growth. Less than 10 percent of the worlds coral species can survive there.

The coolest tropical coral reefs get down to about 60 deg F. for short periods, and the few species of corals that can take that cold a temperature barely eke out survival. Other cool coral reefs, such as Bermuda and Midway, island have plenty of coral individuals, but they have very poor species diversity.

Our corals do not come from these low temperature areas....


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Unread 12/27/2001, 12:57 PM   #10
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Originally posted by Rafa_Sant
Hi Rafa,

PS: What the maximun temp swing ?

It varies with the reefs and the time span you consider. On Johnston atoll SW of Hawaii, a temperature variation of about 30 deg. F. has been measured on the reef flat on a sunny day.

In areas like Fiji, the daily variations are on the order of about 3 to 5 deg. F.

In equatorial regions they tend to be less.

Annual temperature variations also vary with latitude, less in equatorial regions, more in the high latitudes. In places like Fiji, the average monthly temperature varies about 5 to 8 degrees, in Indonesia less so.


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Unread 12/27/2001, 11:22 PM   #11
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Just to wrap this up since Adam is inclined to quit already... Figured I would hit on some of the stuff which Dr. Ron did not cover.

Originally posted by Adam


Have you read the literature for yourself? Alot of others have, and have a different interpretation.

Crazy enough but I actually have read a fair portion of what is on Dr. Ron's site. While some of the references he listed were a little "obscure" when it came to the subject matter at hand some were very good reads and well worth the time. As for the "others" that you speak of if you were to look into it and not take it on faith you will find that the main one in particular has a very annoying habit of stretching and bending the truth whenever he is challenged. This was written in a past debate on this subject:

"including Veron himself, since he is quite skeptical of your theory"

Now lets see what Veron himself "actually thinks" about temperature and its relatedness to biodiversity shall we? These are all from Corals in Space and Time since it is handy and I just re-read the thing for the third time.

"Latitudinal attenuation occurs in the same or similar 'drop-out' sequence in the northrn and southern hemisheres. Latitudinal attenuation is highly correlated with sea surface temperature." pg. 47

"It has long been known that latitudinal range is primarily limited by temperature or correlates of temperature pg. 75

"These data demonstrate that, within Japan, coral species richness can be predicted almost solely from sea surface temperature"...."In the case of central Indo-Pacific latitudinal gradients, this correlation shows that it is temperature and the correlates of temperature, not dispersion capability that is limiting pg. 93

If he is skeptical he sure has a funny way of showing it in his writings. My guess is that the thoughts were passed on to him in a conversation saying something like "Dr. Shimek thinks that ONLY temperature is responsible for diversity banding" or something to that effect that would take the subject out of context to skew the argument.


Your right, sorry for my semantic error. Growth in many species(until you reach an upper thermal limit) is greater at higher temps.

No not "many", but almost all with exception of a few highly tolerant species and some odd-ball deep water species.


As far as Veron's books are concerned... I won't speak about the exact statements made, but in Corals of the World, alot of factors affecting maximum diversity are discussed. Temperature is one, but sunlight and geographical features are also important.

Yes, there are dozens if not more factors that affect diversity and all are important. But a lot of those factors are more regional and local in scale compared to general biodiversity that relates mainly with temperature and surface currents. If you or any other skeptic were to ask Dr. Ron I think you would find he agrees with most of these other factors when it comes to local species diversity be it niche habitats or physical stressors, or whatever you so choose to ask. You cannot however, replace general over-riding factors with localized factors and say that this shows temperature is less important or a non-factor as the two come from different chapters and are best discussed seperately or in conjuction with one another.

If temp is the major factor, why is diversity so much less in the tropical atlantic? It is just as warm as the indo pacific, right?

If you have to ask that one I suggest picking up some texts on biogeography. This is like Biogeography 101 first chapter stuff be it the genetic isolation, human factors, geographic factors, the closing of the Isthmus of Panama..yadda yadda, yadda....

It is because the near surface geological structures aren't there for the corals to grow on.

Actually it has more to do with genetic isolation and the homogeneous structure of the area that has effected speciation.

Also, why is diversity not the highest in the Red Sea? It gets warmer there than the central Indo Pacific.

Again, 101 stuff... The Red Sea has become land locked several times in recent geological history causing mass extinctions from salinity crises more than anything. There is also the matter of the vast nothingness of the Indian Ocean.


The argument that corals are somehow slowly dying at temps below 80-84 just doesn't hold water.

This was the main sticking point originally in the past debates and it is true 100-200 species can live in environments at temperauters below this. Those species that are able to tolerate the lower temps have shown that they indeed can survive grow and even reproduce at those temps. However, there are 300-400 species that cannot survive temperatures below this, or least have not yet to date.


Even if you do believe that the average (over several years) temperature of all the reefs is 82, how long has it been that way in evolutionary terms??

This is not something that you can either believe or dis-believe it is just so. If you choose to ignore facts just to fit whatever your thinking is then so be it.

This interestingly corresponds to the increase in bleaching events in the last few years.

Actually, there is some thoughts that there have been periods of bleaching events ever since the Isthmus of Panama closed seperating the worlds oceans we just weren't paying attention at the time. This has been neither proven or dis-proven so take it FWIW.

The temp in Fiji is too cold for the survival of what???

Approximately 300-400+ species of stoney coral currently cannot or do not survive in the waters of Fiji last I checked.

Get out your Veron books, and see what the diversity is in southern Japan, which gets much cooler than the 77 degrees you state as the coldest reef known.

Japan has the good fortune of having the strongest latitudinal current in the Kuroshio Current which brings warm water (and planulae) north from the center of the Indo-Pacific. Those areas with average temperatures below 77F are not reefal communities but mainly algal reefs with a sparse population of corals.

It certainly is less than the central indo-pacific, but it is much greater than the tropical east atlantic!

Yes, it is greater than the Atlantic because it does not suffer from genetic isolation.

I guess that about sums it up for now.


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Unread 12/28/2001, 01:57 AM   #12
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just for experience

submerge yourself in the bathtub-except your head..
-at 'very very warm' water.. take the temperature and
add hot water.. it is amazing how *intolerable* 4 degrees F can be.


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Unread 12/28/2001, 08:15 AM   #13
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Not sure what the point of the last post was . My tank has a daily temp swing of between 3-5 degrees F. Between 79-83F and occasionally goes to 84F. The growth rates are astounding when my tank is hitting the 83F-84F range. When the weather is temperate and the wife has the house airing out, temp in the house is around 65F my tanks will stay in the 79F-81F and during this two month period the growths rates pretty much stop. Granted algea growth also slows down, but getting about $200 store credit every three months from the incredible growth rates of my GSP and Trumpet coral at the higher temps is worth the extra algea harvesting!


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Unread 12/28/2001, 08:29 AM   #14
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Dragon, your temp swing is the same as mine.

What kind of corals you keep ?

Rafa


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Unread 12/29/2001, 03:34 AM   #15
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Hello-
All the debate has made me decide to up the temp to 82. Before I do just one question. I realize that most reefs are in this range, but does Goniporia naturally thrive at this temp, or should I leave the water at the 78-80 mark where it is happy now? I know that this coral is hard to keep and so far have had sucess despite it having been my first or second coral (LFS said it was easy to keep) and putting it through my mistakes as I am learning. I have read somewhere that the aquarium in Hawii has been having good sucess, so I would imagine that the higher temp is good, but I would value an opinion. Thanks.


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Unread 12/29/2001, 10:48 AM   #16
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Hi,

Goniopora are lagoonal corals that generally thrive in warm (84-86 deg F) dirty water. They need a lot of food - mostly small particulate material, but also a lot of dissolved nutrients, and phytoplankton.

It is almost impossible for most aquarists to keep, as their tanks are far too clean. Generally colonies live for about 4-8 months and then die.

You might do a web search and see if you can find a copy of Dr. Rob Toonen's article on keeping this coral.


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Unread 01/01/2002, 05:16 PM   #17
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Thanks- I just got around to reading it now as I have been out of town for a few days. I have heard that they are hard to keep (the LFS told me that it would make a great first or second coral, and I bought it ) My tank is very well fed and no mechanical filteration nor skimmer, so I am keeping my fingers crossed. I have now brought the temp up and maybe that will help it a little as well. I will do the search and see what I come up with. Thanks again!


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Unread 01/02/2002, 05:53 AM   #18
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[arc]


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Unread 01/02/2002, 02:09 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally posted by saltshop
This was the main sticking point originally in the past debates and it is true 100-200 species can live in environments at temperauters below this. Those species that are able to tolerate the lower temps have shown that they indeed can survive grow and even reproduce at those temps. However, there are 300-400 species that cannot survive temperatures below this, or least have not yet to date.
Could you direct us to the studies that have shown that 300-400 species cannot survive temperatures below this? In fact, can you show us any sps study that has demonstrated that a single coral cannot survive in 78 degree water?

Regarding your comment about bacteria, in one study corals infected with Vibrio survived in cooler water but succumbed in warmer water, so there is some evidence that corals can handle infection better in cooler water (perhaps because of slower bacteria growth).

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Unread 01/03/2002, 08:07 AM   #20
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Quote:
Approximately 300-400+ species of stoney coral currently cannot or do not survive in the waters of Fiji last I checked
This is from above and it seems to me the point is really easy to understand, diversity does not exist in these colder temperature locations. It has been repeatedly pointed out that scientists believe the studies show that temperature is a key factor in limiting diversity. The real question is, on what scientific basis are you keeping your tank at colder temperatures? Reference all of your literature that shows more diversity and better metabolism rates for more species of corals, that lead to a cooler temperature being better! There is a point at which this just appears to be people resisting change because the old ways are better .


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Unread 01/03/2002, 11:14 AM   #21
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Originally posted by GSB
Hi,

Could you direct us to the studies that have shown that 300-400 species cannot survive temperatures below this? In fact, can you show us any sps study that has demonstrated that a single coral cannot survive in 78 degree water?

First define what an sps coral is. This simply can't be done, as this is not a term that can be used.

Numerous corals in nature will not be found in where the temperature dips that low. Go to books that show maps of where coral species occur.

Then look at the lowest temperatures found at the edges of their ranges. They do not grow below that temperature. You will find that for a great many of them, they never see temperatures below 78. However, most can survive poorly at those temperatures.

You will find references to low thermal tolerances and corals here:
http://www.rshimek.com/reef/tempsal.htm

[b]Regarding your comment about bacteria, in one study corals infected with Vibrio survived in cooler water but succumbed in warmer water, so there is some evidence that corals can handle infection better in cooler water (perhaps because of slower bacteria growth).[b]

Just the opposite, actually...

You need to actually read these studies I suspect. The coral in question is Oculina patagonica. This coral is a Red Sea species invading the Mediterranean sea (a cold sea without much coral) in the region of the Israeli coast. In this area, it gets infected with Vibrio shiloi a species which does indeed cause temperature dependent bleaching in this coral, in this particular non-normal habitat; which tends to kill the coral. This particular habitat is signficantly cooler than where the coral is normally found, and this method of mortality is, in fact, a good example of how low temperatures limit coral distribution. In this case, the coral seems to adapt to the low temperatues, but when slight, but normal for the area, elevations then do occur, a pathogen which doesn't harm the coral in its normal habitat can kill it in the cooler one.

Here are couple of recent references on this interaction. You can back track to some others through them:

Kushmaro, A., E. Banin, Y. Loya, E. Stackebrandt and E. Rosenberg. 2001. Vibrio shiloi sp. nov., the causative agent of bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51:1383-1388.

Banin, E., T. Israely, M. Fine, Y. Loya and E. Rosenberg. 2001. Role of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and coral mucus in the adhesion of the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi to its host. Fems (Federation of European Microbiological Societies) Microbiology Letters. 199:33-37.




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Unread 01/03/2002, 11:30 AM   #22
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LOL...I see Richard has made his way back to the forum through a different ISP...congrats. My original words "Not this crap again! " seemed to be quite prophetic..eh?

[Originally posted by GSB


Could you direct us to the studies that have shown that 300-400 species cannot survive temperatures below this? In fact, can you show us any sps study that has demonstrated that a single coral cannot survive in 78 degree water?


581+ nominal species in the central Indo 100-200 in Fiji. Need I say more?


Regarding your comment about bacteria, in one study corals infected with Vibrio survived in cooler water but succumbed in warmer water, so there is some evidence that corals can handle infection better in cooler water (perhaps because of slower bacteria growth).

Never mind Dr, Ron covered this way better than I ever could. Hey, maybe you can bring back that worthless piece of trash article on testing for bacteria levels in tanks and we can rehash that again??? Still waiting for an explanation as to why you mis-represented Veron in past discussions....

"It goes on and on, on and on,on an on an on an on..." - Black Sabbath


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Unread 01/04/2002, 12:02 AM   #23
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Red face

Since Richard has failed to respond I figured I would throw in my final 2 cents with a few other quotes that are relevent as well as maybe a train of thought for this.

"Biogeography, as a topic for discourse or discussion, is in some ways like religion: both topics lend themselves to ever more complicated treatment in the abstract. which is apt to border even on the miraculous, but which is apt to crumble in confrontation with concrete facts of life." ~ Nelson and Platnick

Sooner or later you are going to have to come to grip with the concrete facts that corals exist where they are able to survive. Some survive in 78F water, but the vast majority survive in 82-84F water. There is nothing to be proud or ashamed of, it is just the way that is....look to nature for the clues my man...they are there.

"There is a clear correlation between generic contours of diversity (isopangeneric contours) and sea surface temperatue" Stehli and Wells 1971

"....they show that species can be widely distributed, that they have continuous ranges from the tropics to high latitudes, that they do not replace one another along these sequences, and that species diversity attenuates in a manner correlated with sea surface temperatue." Veron on a study done by Yabe and Sugiyama in 1935

"The major features of coral distribution are latitudinal and are primarily controlled by temperatue and climate; regional features are primarily longitudinal and are due to geo-tectonic events. enhanced by glacio-eustatic change concentrating speciation in outlying islands" (Rosen 1984)

"Latitudinal limits are ultimately determined by temperature..." Veron pg. 57

"Physical-environmental parameters that generate biogeographic patterns. tend to be either latitude-correlated (including temperature, light, reef/non-reef habitats and boundary currents), or non-latitude-correlated (including non-boundary sea surface circulation, substrate availability, water quality and nutrients, regional ecology and regional dispersion barriers" Veron pg. 89 ~ This goes directly to what I mentioned earlier about trying to combine general biodiversity with regional factors, they are seperate entities but both part of the whole.

And finally a phrase that as soon as I read it made me think of Dr. Ron's article and past discussions...

"Upstream sources continually supply propagules to downstream locations where they survive, or not, according to ecolgical and environmental factors, of which temperature is the most important." Veron pg. 99 ~If that is not almost verbatum of what Dr. Ron has been trying to get across for the past few years I do not know what is. If you want to know the underlying reason that Fiji has 300-400 fewer species than the center of diversity then that is it in a nutshell.

If anyone is wondering why would I defend this so strongly....I can give you one reason and that is when I first read Dr. Ron's stuff I figured he just had to be on drugs (he is from Montana after all..what does that have to do with reefs?) So I decided to look at whatever I could find that dealt with the subject matter and low and behold it was all there in black and white. He is not some crazy mis-fit from Montana spewing some wild ideas (although apparently there are still some that think this ) but is giving us some common information that apparently has been around since the 1930s...go figure. If I have not said it enough before... "Thanks Dr. Ron!".

Lastly, I was looking through Corals of the World tonight and I can find no better illustration of the effects of temperature on diversity than in Vol. 3 pg. 412 on map #3. If you look at the center of diversity and then trace it north to Japan...this is where the Kuroshio Current runs. It is the fastest and most powerful warm water current in the entire region and starts at the center of diversity region that has "581" stamped on it and heads northward. Look at what happens within just a few degrees from the equator...species drop from 581 to 300 ish. Continue to trace it north until it hits mainland Japan and is slowed and the water is allowed to cool...what happens to species diversity? You betcha, it drops to the 50's and quickly to zero beyond that. What else will it take to prove a point? Really!


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Unread 01/04/2002, 11:41 AM   #24
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Unread 01/04/2002, 07:56 PM   #25
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[QUOTE]Originally posted by saltshop
LOL...I see Richard has made his way back to the forum through a different ISP...congrats. My original words "Not this crap again! " seemed to be quite prophetic..eh?

Saltshop, I'm flattered that you would assume that a post challenging the mythology of warm water would be mine, but let me assure you that I'm not the only person to question the myth nor do I need to hide behind a nom de plume. I'm sure its hard to believe, but there are others who appreciate the vacuousness of your arguments. I also think it a cheap shot to invoke my name on a forum from which Ron has officially banned me. I have no interest in posting here, but I think it only fair that I have a right to reply to this sort of crap.

The poster asked for studies that showed that a hard coral cannot live in 78 degree water. You responded that since there's lower diversity in cooler water that it proves that there are corals that cannot live in cooler water. The fact that fewer corals are found in cooler water does not prove that they cannot live there. There are no indigenous kangaroos outside Australia. Does that prove that they cannot survive anywhere else than Australia? There are many animals that are found in isolation. Isolation is not proof that they cannot survive elsewhere.

The truth is that there are no studies that have demonstrated the narrow temperature tolerance you suggest. There's no experimental evidence that corals living in 84 degree water will die if placed in 78 degree water. None. So until you produce experimental evidence to the contrary, the only accurate statement that you can make is that fewer hard corals are found in cooler waters. Period.

Richard Harker


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