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Old 06/08/2005, 10:55 AM   #76
Bugger
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Sorry for the mix up Im not trying to culture pyhto in a mixed culture Im thinking about having a multiple zooplanton culture system. As most of you already know brime shrimp need good oxygen concentration to grow. How fast will a skimmer remove phyto, does anybody really know the answer to that question. Can you give some kind of study link or reference. Everybodyusing DT's is just pouring money down the drain if its that true.

Copepods don't eat just one thing they also eat diatoms and dirt maybe even bacteria.


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Old 06/08/2005, 12:36 PM   #77
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Sorry for the mix up Im not trying to culture pyhto in a mixed culture Im thinking about having a multiple zooplanton culture system. aha well thatll work fine then, you just need to screen the overflows so that nothing good goes down them.

As most of you already know brime shrimp need good oxygen concentration to grow. uuh, brine shrimp dont need good anything to grow, including oxygen, there is 2 low numbers one where they change what they eat and how fast they breed its around 3ppm and one where they croak around 1ppm

How fast will a skimmer remove phyto, does anybody really know the answer to that question. the only problem with the answer is really a problem with the quesiton, look at the protein skimmers available commercially, are you really comparing an euro-reef with a seaclone??? also look at the flow rate vs volume if it takes 20 minutes for a single phyto cell to make its way to the skimmer to be removed, there is a good chance that a copepod or something might find it and eat it. and once that happens then its chances of being pulled are lower.

Can you give some kind of study link or reference. search around the DR Ron forum there is one in there

Everybodyusing DT's is just pouring money down the drain if its that true. no it gets back to that volume thing, and the amount of DT's thing, they are pouring some money down yea, but how much, and at what benefit if its not eaten eventually itll settle and decompose, decomposing in the skimmer collection cup provides no nutrient excess to the tank, decomposing in the tank does.

Copepods don't eat just one thing they also eat diatoms and dirt maybe even bacteria. my empty head isnt seeing anything that says they only eat one thing so if im not following that part point it out. but more or less diatoms are algae, i dont know of any copepod that eats dirt. bacteria consumption is secondary to algae.


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Old 06/08/2005, 05:37 PM   #78
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Just a side note on the DT's and other commercial phytos. Most of those bottles address the damage and removal, by pumps and filters, factor by telling customers to shut off all pumps and skimmers for a period of 15 minutes while feeding their product. This does allow the animals time to ingest a good portion of the product, but yes the reminants will be partially skimmed or destroyed when the system is turned back on, but it is a gradual dilution issue like RSMan stated not an immeadiate removal.


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Old 06/08/2005, 06:34 PM   #79
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gradual dilution issue like RSMan stated not an immeadiate removal
yea but that sounds better


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Old 07/12/2005, 10:47 PM   #80
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here is a very good reference from the united nations no less here is the table of contents

Quote:

Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture


1. INTRODUCTION

2. MICRO-ALGAE


2.1. Introduction
2.2. Major classes and genera of cultured algal species
2.3. Algal production


2.3.1. Physical and chemical conditions


2.3.1.1. Culture medium/nutrients
2.3.1.2. Light
2.3.1.3. pH
2.3.1.4. Aeration/mixing
2.3.1.5. Temperature
2.3.1.6. Salinity


2.3.2. Growth dynamics
2.3.3. Isolating/obtaining and maintaining of cultures
2.3.4. Sources of contamination and water treatment
2.3.5. Algal culture techniques


2.3.5.1. Batch culture
2.3.5.2. Continuous culture
2.3.5.3. Semi-continuous culture


2.3.6. Algal production in outdoor ponds
2.3.7. Culture of sessile micro-algae
2.3.8. Quantifying algal biomass
2.3.9. Harvesting and preserving micro-algae
2.3.10. Algal production cost


2.4. Nutritional value of micro-algae
2.5. Use of micro-algae in aquaculture


2.5.1. Bivalve molluscs
2.5.2. Penaeid shrimp
2.5.3. Marine fish


2.6. Replacement diets for live algae


2.6.1. Preserved algae
2.6.2. Micro-encapsulated diets
2.6.3. Yeast-based diets


2.7. Literature of interest
2.8. Worksheets


Worksheet 2.1.: Isolation of pure algal strains by the agar plating technique
Worksheet 2.2.: Determination of cell concentrations using haematocytometer according to Fuchs-Rosenthal and Burker.
Worksheet 2.3.: Cellular dry weight estimation of micro-algae.


3. ROTIFERS


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Morphology
3.3. Biology and life history
3.4. Strain differences
3.5. General culture conditions


3.5.1. Marine rotifers


3.5.1.1. Salinity
3.5.1.2. Temperature
3.5.1.3. Dissolved oxygen
3.5.1.4. pH
3.5.1.5. Ammonia (NH3)
3.5.1.6. Bacteria
3.5.1.7. Ciliates


3.5.2. Freshwater rotifers
3.5.3. Culture procedures


3.5.3.1. Stock culture of rotifers
3.5.3.2. Upscaling of stock cultures to starter cultures
3.5.3.3. Mass production on algae
3.5.3.4. Mass production on algae and yeast
3.5.3.5. Mass culture on yeast
3.5.3.6. Mass culture on formulated diets
3.5.3.7. High density rearing


3.5.4. Harvesting/concentration of rotifers


3.6. Nutritional value of cultured rotifers


3.6.1. Techniques for (n-3) HUFA enrichment


3.6.1.1. Algae
3.6.1.2. Formulated feeds
3.6.1.3. Oil emulsions


3.6.2. Techniques for vitamin C enrichment
3.6.3. Techniques for protein enrichment
3.6.4. Harvesting/concentration and cold storage of rotifers


3.7. Production and use of resting eggs
3.8. Literature of interest
3.9 Worksheets


Worksheet 3.1. Preparation of an indicator solution for determination of residual chlorine



4. ARTEMIA



4.1. Introduction, biology and ecology of Artemia


4.1.1. Introduction
4.1.2. Biology and ecology of Artemia


4.1.2.1. Morphology and life cycle
4.1.2.2. Ecology and natural distribution
4.1.2.3. Taxonomy
4.1.2.4. Strain-specific characteristics


4.1.3. Literature of interest


4.2. Use of cysts


4.2.1. Cyst biology


4.2.1.1. Cyst morphology
4.2.1.2. Physiology of the hatching process
4.2.1.3. Effect of environmental conditions on cyst metabolism
4.2.1.4. Diapause


4.2.2. Disinfection procedures
4.2.3 Decapsulation
4.2.4. Direct use of decapsulated cysts
4.2.5. Hatching


4.2.5.1. Hatching conditions and equipment
4.2.5.2. Hatching quality and evaluation


4.2.6. Literature of interest
4.2.7. Worksheets


Worksheet 4.2.1.: Procedure for estimating water content of Artemia cysts
Worksheet 4.2.2.: Specific diapause termination techniques
Worksheet 4.2.3.: Disinfection of Artemia cysts with liquid bleach
Worksheet 4.2.4.: Procedures for the decapsulation of Artemia cysts
Worksheet 4.2.5.: Titrimetric method for the determination of active chlorine in hypochlorite solutions
Worksheet 4.2.6.: Artemia hatching
Worksheet 4.2.7.: Determination of hatching percentage, hatching efficiency and hatching rate



4.3. Use of nauplii and meta-nauplii


4.3.1. Harvesting and distribution
4.3.2. Cold storage
4.3.3. Nutritional quality
4.3.4. Enrichment with nutrients
4.3.5. Enrichment for disease control
4.3.6. Applications of Artemia for feeding different species


4.3.6.1. Penaeid shrimp
4.3.6.2. Freshwater prawn
4.3.6.3. Marine fish
4.3.6.4. Freshwater fish
4.3.6.5. Aquarium fish


4.3.7. Literature of interest
4.3.8. Worksheets


Worksheet 4.3.1.: Standard enrichment for Great Salt Lake Artemia.



4.4. Tank production and use of ongrown Artemia


4.4.1. Nutritional properties of ongrown Artemia
4.4.2. Tank production


4.4.2.1. Advantages of tank production and tank produced biomass
4.4.2.2. Physico-chemical conditions
4.4.2.3. Artemia
4.4.2.4. Feeding
4.4.2.5. Infrastructure
4.4.2.6. Culture techniques
4.4.2.7. Enrichment of ongrown Artemia
4.4.2.8. Control of infections
4.4.2.9. Harvesting and processing techniques
4.4.2.10. Production figures and production costs


4.4.3. Literature of interest
4.4.4. Worksheets


Worksheet 4.4.1: Feeding strategy for intensive Artemia culture.



4.5. Pond production


4.5.1. Description of the different Artemia habitats


4.5.1.1. Natural lakes
4.5.1.2. Permanent solar salt operations
4.5.1.3. Seasonal units


4.5.2. Site selection


4.5.2.1. Climatology
4.5.2.2. Topography
4.5.2.3. Soil conditions


4.5.3. Pond adaptation


4.5.3.1. Large permanent salt operations
4.5.3.2. Small pond systems


4.5.4. Pond preparation


4.5.4.1. Liming
4.5.4.2. Predator control
4.5.4.3. Fertilization


4.5.5. Artemia inoculation


4.5.5.1. Artemia strain selection
4.5.5.2. Inoculation procedures


4.5.6. Monitoring and managing the culture system


4.5.6.1. Monitoring the Artemia population
4.5.6.2. Abiotic parameters influencing Artemia populations
4.5.6.3. Biotic factors influencing Artemia populations


4.5.7. Harvesting and processing techniques


4.5.7.1. Artemia biomass harvesting and processing
4.5.7.2. Artemia cyst harvesting and processing


4.5.8. Literature of interest
4.5.9. Worksheets


Worksheet 4.5.1.: Pond improvements and harvesting procedures
Worksheet 4.5.2.: Procedures for the brine processing step
Worksheet 4.5.3.: Procedures for the freshwater processing step





5. ZOOPLANKTON


5.1. Wild zooplankton


5.1.1. Introduction
5.1.2. Collection from the wild
5.1.3. Collection techniques


5.1.3.1. Plankton nets
5.1.3.2. Trawl nets
5.1.3.3. Baleen harvesting system
5.1.3.4. Flow-through harvesting
5.1.3.5. Plankton light trapping


5.1.4. Zooplankton grading
5.1.5. Transport and storage of collected zooplankton


5.2. Production of copepods


5.2.1. Introduction
5.2.2. Life cycle
5.2.3. Biometrics
5.2.4. Nutritional quality
5.2.5. Culture techniques


5.2.5.1. Calanoids
5.2.5.2. Harpacticoids


5.2.6. Use of resting eggs
5.2.7. Applications in larviculture


5.3. Mesocosm systems


5.3.1. Introduction
5.3.2. Types of mesocosms


5.3.2.1. Pold system (2-60 m³)
5.3.2.2. Bag system (50-200 m³)
5.3.2.3. Pond system
5.3.2.4. Tank system


5.3.3. Mesocosm protocol
5.3.4. Comparison to intensive methods


5.4. Literature of interest


6. CLADOCERANS, NEMATODES AND TROCHOPHORA LARVAE


6.1. Daphnia and Moina


6.1.1. Biology and life cycle of Daphnia
6.1.2. Nutritional value of Daphnia
6.1.3. Feeding and nutrition of Daphnia
6.1.4. Mass culture of Daphnia


6.1.4.1. General procedure for tank culture
6.1.4.2. Detrital system
6.1.4.3. Autotrophic system
6.1.4.4. General procedure for pond culture
6.1.4.5. Contamination


6.1.5. Production and use of resting eggs
6.1.6. Use of Moina


6.2. Nematodes
6.3. Trochophora larvae


6.3.1. Introduction
6.3.2. Production of trochophora larvae


6.3.2.1. Mussel larvae
6.3.2.2. Pacific oyster and Manila clam larvae


6.3.3. Quality control of the produced trochophora larvae
6.3.4. Cryopreservation


6.4. Literature of interest






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Old 07/12/2005, 10:47 PM   #81
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[email protected]#$%^%$^%&*^%$ double post


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Old 07/12/2005, 11:07 PM   #82
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I thought the FAO link was in here already, but even if its not, now all we need are those to be hyperlinks


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Old 07/13/2005, 12:17 AM   #83
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Quote:
Originally posted by rsman
I thought the FAO link was in here already, but even if its not, now all we need are those to be hyperlinks
The link at the top of his post takes you to the hyperlinked page. I love technology. No more paper cuts!!!


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Old 07/26/2005, 04:09 PM   #84
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Lightbulb upside down bottles?

I have noticed in every phytoplankton culture I have ever seen the 2 liter bottles are always right side up... Is there merit to the idea of keeping the bottles upside down with air coming in through the bottlecap to prevent phytos or whatever from settling into the bottle? If the air is all the way at the bottom of the bottle (cap end, when upside down) it seems as though it would work.?? Any thoughts....


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Old 07/26/2005, 04:14 PM   #85
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it works but not without problems,

if you feed air from the bottom then you have airline that will be exposed to algae, this is a bad thing, but an inverted 2l bottle with an air hole in 1 ?lobe? and an exit hole in the other works great. but then you have to keep it upright which can also be done.


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Old 07/26/2005, 05:05 PM   #86
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You have the right idea, but I believe you will create more problems than it is worth, as settling phyto really is not that big of an issue if you shake the bottles every once in awhile.


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Old 07/27/2005, 03:42 PM   #87
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Bugger, you mean detritus not dirt. Hapacticoid do eat a lot of detritus, but the pelagic species don't. There are huge differences between the group. The reason why tanks normally have good population of hapacticoids is that they are benthic and almost never leave the substrate or they don't venture very far, and have benthic or semi-benthic nauplii. This on reason they are mostly worthless for culturing fish. The other is that they are nowhere near nutritious as most calanoids and cyclopoids.


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Old 10/01/2005, 08:03 PM   #88
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I have a question on copepods. When I start raising rotifers again I think I will also try copepods, now is it possible to aclimate the copepods to a 1.014 salinity and breed them in my rotifer tank? Thanks
David


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Old 01/16/2006, 06:20 PM   #89
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Hi all,

I am planning to start culturing phytoplankton and would like to know if there is a hardware store like lowes or home depot that sell the rigid tubing? Also, I read one of the article and it mentioned that the size for the rigid tubing is 1/8", is this correct?

Thanks


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Old 01/16/2006, 09:45 PM   #90
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I wouldnt limit yourself to 1/8" tubing this isnt so much incorrect as its just too generic. 1/2" pvc is rigid heavy and can have 1/8" holes drilled into it very easily.

now where to get it, most plastic places will have it.


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Old 01/18/2006, 10:08 PM   #91
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Quote:
Originally posted by Dlckwood
I have a question on copepods. When I start raising rotifers again I think I will also try copepods, now is it possible to aclimate the copepods to a 1.014 salinity and breed them in my rotifer tank? Thanks
David
David,only now I see your question bumped
Yes it is possible to acclimate pods to 1.014 or 1.010.In fact many estuarine species do better at low salinities.


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Old 01/18/2006, 10:08 PM   #92
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Quote:
Originally posted by Dlckwood
I have a question on copepods. When I start raising rotifers again I think I will also try copepods, now is it possible to aclimate the copepods to a 1.014 salinity and breed them in my rotifer tank? Thanks
David
David,only now I see your question bumped
Yes it is possible to acclimate pods to 1.014 or 1.010.In fact many estuarine species do better at low salinities.


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Old 01/18/2006, 10:22 PM   #93
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But you can't really co-rear them with rotifers.


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Old 01/19/2006, 01:22 AM   #94
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Quote:
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But you can't really co-rear them with rotifers.
Mmm, yah, not very good co-culture canidates IME.


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Old 01/20/2006, 06:25 PM   #95
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Andy is right.A successful pod culture must be kept rot free
Rotifers will quickly take the culture and are very difficult to erradicate


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Old 02/07/2006, 06:15 PM   #96
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little_d:
Go to a dollar store, look among the party supplies.
Find the balloons, and select a package that has the long straws for holding the balloons.

Presto!
Rigid airline tubing!
(Probably food safe, considering that this stuff is aimed at kids. )


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Old 03/11/2006, 01:31 PM   #97
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Ridged tubeing

Where do I get the ridged tubeing to culture phytoplanktin?


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Old 03/14/2006, 06:15 PM   #98
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petco and petsmart have airline tubing


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Old 04/07/2006, 02:23 AM   #99
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Hi Expert please help,
what kind method to increase the density or concentration of phyto, heard used the lugol solution is it right or any other pls?

thanks 'reevs'


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Old 04/20/2006, 11:42 AM   #100
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I see that there are different strains of Rotifers. S and ss. Does anyone know what strain Brachionus plicatilis might be. It is at Sachs Systems aquaculture.


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