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Old 11/02/2010, 11:34 PM   #251
capecoral
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"[Some websites really get down to the serious, useable information about corals. This site is one of them:]"

"CoralScience.org:

"Life on earth is always classified into systematic groups by biologists, on the basis of external appearance (e.g. birds and mammals), behavior (diurnal or nocturnal) or the characteristics of living cells (e.g. plant or animal cells). A fourth means of distinction is metabolism, which can be autotrophic or heterotrophic. These terms are commonly used in marine biology, especially when regarding bacteria."

"Autotrophy means that organisms use inorganic molecules (such as CO2 and bicarbonate) to build organic ones, such as carbohydrates [DOC]. Examples are plants, which convert CO2 into carbohydrates by using sun's energy, or sulphur bacteria, which utilize the chemical energy stored in sulphur to convert CO2 to organics. For plants, we call this photoautotrophy (photo: light, auto: self and trophy: feeding) and for bacteria, in this case, we call this chemoautotrophy (chemo: chemical reaction). Another term for photoautotrophy is photosynthesis, another word for chemoautotrophy is chemosynthesis. Autotrophic organisms are also called primary producers ["primary reducers"], as they are the first link in the food chain which leads to biomass production from inorganic molecules. [And thus they reduce these inorganics]"

"Heterotrophy means that organisms make direct use of organic molecules, which are either present in the environment, or have been produced by autotrophic organisms. The consumption of plants by snails or cows is a form of heterotrophic feeding. From CO2, carbohydrates have been formed by using sunlight, which the plants have converted into biomass; this is subsequently consumed and converted into animal biomass."

"The photosynthates which zooxanthellae provide their [coral] hosts with can deliver up to 100% of the daily required energy [but not growth] budget for corals. These are often deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus [which ARE required for growth], and are thought to be used as fuel for respiration and mucus secretion, rather than being assimilated into biomass [growth]. Zooxanthellae transfer glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, triglycerides and even amino acids [all these are DOC] to their [coral] hosts. [...] Unfortunately, photosynthates alone are not sufficient to build animal tissue. These elements [which ARE needed to build tissue] are ingested by corals by catching particulate organic matter (plankton, detritus) from the water, and by absorbing dissolved [DOC] molecules. Heterotrophy [feeding] is essential for all corals and can meet up to 100% of the daily required energy in corals which are bleached or inhabit deep or turbid waters [and thus get NO energy from light]."

"Dissolved organic matter (DOM) [DOC] forms an important food source for many corals and related animals such as Zoanthus [zoo's]. Already in 1960, scientists found that stony corals from the genus Fungia were able to take up radioactively labeled glucose from the water. This was demonstrated by subsequent tissue analysis."

"In science, DOM is often split into various elements such as DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). Important examples are carbohydrates(DOC), amino acids (DON, often referred to as DFAA or dissolved free amino acids) and urea; as less poisonous variant of ammonia which is produced by many animals. [...] This indicates the importance of aquarium supplements for nutrient-poor aquaria, which contain many coral colonies and few fish [because fish-waste is food]. These are mostly aquaria from the aquaculture industry, as most hobbyists tanks are densely stocked with fish."

"It is intriguing that many corals also take up urea [pee] from the water, and they can do this in even greater quantities compared to nitrate (at least in nature). This indicates these animals may have adapted to the presence of higher animals on the reef, such as fish, which collectively produce large amounts of this nitrogen-rich compound [pee] on a daily basis."

"Particulate Organic Matter (POC): This group of particles usually describes detritus [waste]; the small remnants of feces and decayed organisms. In the aquarium, food which is not consumed and removed also becomes detritus. Detritus eventually precipitates [falls] on the ocean floor or aquarium bottom as sediment. This layer of organic material is partially degraded [eaten] by bacteria, and converted into inorganic molecules such as nitrate and phosphate. This process is called mineralization."

"The [POC] sediment which is present on coral reefs contains bacteria, protozoa and their excrements, microscopic invertebrates, microalgae and organics. These sedimentary sources can all serve as coral nutrients, especially for colonies which grow in turbid waters. Experiments during which sedimentary carbon was radioactively labeled showed that corals such as Fungia horrida and Acropora millepora readily took up sediment [as food]. The more sediment present, the more uptake [feeding] is measured; 50-80% of this material is converted into biomass [growth] by several species. This has also been found for the Caribbean species Montastrea franksi, Diploria strigosa and Madracis mirabilis; detritus is taken up by the polyps, and the available nitrogen is converted into biomass [growth]."

"Plankton: This group is sometimes regarded as the living component of POM. The term plankton is a common name for an astoundingly large group of organisms which can be categorized in different ways. Figure 7 shows a commonly accepted division into pico-, nano-, micro- and mesoplankton. These groups consist of (cyano)bacteria and protozoa (picoplankton), algae and protozoa (nanoplankton), microscopic crustaceans such as rotifers and large protozoa (microplankton) and countless other species of crustaceans (mesoplankton). Fish and invertebrate larvae can further be categorized into micro- and mesoplankton, depending on the species."

"Plankton was not considered as an important coral food source for many years; it was believed concentrations on the reef were too low to have any significant effect. In the meantime, more accurate estimations have been made, based on improved measuring techniques. These values are particularly high during summers, which is probably due to the abundance of phytoplankton. This leads to increased concentrations of zooplankton, as they feed on the extra available phytoplankton."

"Other branched SPS corals are however capable of catching more zooplankton per unit of weight compared to species with larger polyps [LPS]. It seems that polyp size is not a solid predictor of capture efficiency, but rather determines maximum prey size."

"The species Pocillopora damicornis and Pavona gigantea which inhabit the Gulf of Panama were found to mainly feed on isopods, amphipods and crab zoea [all plankton]."

"Individual polyps of the Atlantic species Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa are able to capture and ingest 0.5 to 2.0 prey per hour. On a colony level, these numbers get big pretty quickly. A small Seriatopora colony of 14 ml in volume is able to capture 10,000 Artemia in 15 minutes! This however requires very high aquarium zooplankton concentrations of 10,000 to 20,000 Artemia per liter."

"Other results show that an aquarium concentration of 2000 nauplii/liter (about 5000 nauplii /gallon) is ideal for stony corals such as Pocillopora damicornis. To reach this concentration, it will take a daily amount of one million nauplii for the average 500 liter (130 USG) aquarium."

"Next to fish, protein skimmers also are voracious particle predators. All forms of mechanical filtration will decrease available nutrients, unfortunately. Without this filtration however, water quality declines quickly. Water changes, phosphate reactors, refugia with Chaetomorpha macro algae [and other solid-algae solutions that we will point out] and denitrification reactors all work well to allow plankton populations to persist, however these are often quite labor intensive. Keeping many organisms in a small aquarium, be it corals or fish, simply degrades water quality quickly. In nature, the ratio between biomass to water volume is much lower. [And in the ocean, algae is 90% of all biomass except bacteria]. Next to this, many waste products are quickly converted into new biomass such as plankton and sponges. This also occurs in the aquarium, to some extent, however this does not outweigh the amount of nutrients which is introduced on a daily basis."

"[Bacteria and protozoa] play an important role in the marine food chain. In terms of biomass and photosynthesis, these organisms form the most important part of pelagic plankton. On the reef, bacterial concentrations sometimes lie around one million per milliliter! For cyanobacteria, the number fluctuates around 10,000-100,000 per ml, and for flagellates around 10,000 per ml. As these microbes grow fast, they are highly important for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in the ocean. For the model species Stylophora pistillata, if has been found that [eating] microbes yields almost three times as much nitrogen as ammonia, nitrate and amino acids together."

"Montipora capitata colonies have been found to increase their plankton feeding rates after bleaching, which completely satisfies their daily metabolic requirements."

"Although it may seem that feeding and photosynthesis are two separate processes, they are in fact intricately linked. Nutrient exchange between corals and symbiotic algae is diverse, and this is increased by extra light and feeding. More feeding stimulates zooxanthellae growth and buildup of pigments such as chlorophyll. This makes the coral a more effective 'solar cell', which is able to convert more light into chemical energy. This benefits both the coral and the algae. It has become clear from CORALZOO-experiments that corals grow less than expected under high intensity lighting. This is most likely due to [lack of food]. French scientists found that this limitation can be reduced by providing extra nutrition in the form of zooplankton. This in fact occurs in nature as well, mostly during summers, when ample light and zooplankton particles are available. This situation can be simulated in the aquarium as well, by providing extra plankton in combination with T5 or metal halide lighting."

"After eight weeks of zooplankton feeding (such as Artemia nauplii), calcification [growth] rates of Stylophora pistillata doubled. As tissues grew faster compared to the skeleton, this led to fleshier corals. When these corals received less light, a decline in growth rate could be prevented by providing additional plankton. This fact is interesting for aquarists who do not want to make use of heavy lighting above the aquarium, for obvious reasons."

"Coral feeding quickly leads to increased tissue production and protein concentration. This increase was about 2-8x for Stylophora pistillata after three weeks of zooplankton feeding! Next to proteins, lipid content also increased. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased in Galaxea fascicularis tissue after feeding with Artemia nauplii. More light actually decreased tissue fat contents [this is bad]. Although this seems contradictory, these corals probably invested more fatty acids into growth and zooxanthellae production to enhance usage of extra light."

"[Here is] an overview of the studies discussed in this article, which shows the diverse effects of feeding on coral physiology. Fed corals display (1) twofold greater protein concentrations and photosynthetic rates per unit skeletal surface area; (2) twofold higher dark and light calcification rates; (3) twofold greater organic matrix synthesis in the dark and a 60% increase during daytime."

"For Stylophora pistillata, zooxanthellae tissue concentrations doubled within several weeks of zooplankton feeding, both at low and high light levels."

"Stony corals such as Leptoseris and Montipora spp. also occur in the mesophotic zone, even though light levels be may as low as 1% of the sunlight irradiance experienced at the surface! This shows that even zooxanthellate corals can adapt to very low light intensity levels, as long as this is compensated by heterotrophy such as plankton feeding."

"It must be noted that major differences exist between the fastest growing coral, and the most attractive one. Most aquarists favor bright colors, which arise by coral host pigmentation. Brown zooxanthellate pigments such as chlorophyll are considered to be unattractive. These last pigments do provide the energy for increased growth, in contrast to brightly colored pigments which act as sunscreens. Producing them also goes at the expense of coral growth. [Thus, increase feeding when you want growth, and decrease feeding when you want colors.]"


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Old 11/02/2010, 11:36 PM   #252
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...



Last edited by capecoral; 11/02/2010 at 11:42 PM.
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Old 11/03/2010, 01:11 AM   #253
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Where I live most LFS get this stuff called "Reef Stew" it is grown locally. Consists of several different types of live zooplankton, phytoplankton, brine shrimp, mysis shrimp and even some shrimp larvae from time to time. This stuff is great for feeding sps and all filter feeders. It really cool when you get it and look through the bag, you see all the little critters swimming around. Regularly feeding this in the past has created a large population of live mysis in my fuge. A tank move killed them all off though I am just now trying to get the population back.


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Old 11/09/2010, 10:06 PM   #254
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Sounds like an ant farm


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Old 11/11/2010, 10:43 AM   #255
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"[The next few studies will be about DOC in the ocean. DOC is dissolved organic carbon, not to be confused with GAC which is the granular activated carbon that some people use as a filter to remove DOC. The following studies are part of a focus we want to give DOC because of the misunderstandings that many reefers have about it. The first study (below), actually is not a research study per se, but an academic paper. These types of papers are great at explaining difficult things on a level that, while very simple for biologists, is much easier to understand for hobbyists. The main thing to remember while reading studies about DOC is that DOC is the largest portion of carbon in the ocean, and that it feeds almost everything, especially corals. When you are looking at "crystal clear" reefs, you are actually looking directly through the DOC that is keeping the corals alive. Everything in the ocean has adapted to grow best in this DOC.]"

"Online photochemical oxidation and flow injection conductivity determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon [DOC] in estuarine and coastal waters. The University of the South Pacific Library, 1999."

"Carbon is the link between the inorganic environment, and the living organisms. The carbon cycle basically illustrates the interchange of carbon between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and the lithosphere. The focus of this [paper] is the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters, specifically marine and estuarine waters. In natural waters, the total organic carbon (TOC) is composed of particulate organic carbon (POC) and DOC. In most of these waters, the concentration of DOC is greater than the concentration of POC. For example, in the sea, the concentration of DOC surpasses POC by a factor of 50 to 100 percent. [Meaning, there is more DOC than there are food "particles", even though the DOC is invisible.]"

"DOC in natural waters is usually made up of fatty acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrocarbons, hydrophilic acids, fulvic acids, humic acids, viruses and clay-humic-metal complexes. [And this is what corals have adapted to grow best in]."

"In oceanic waters, DOC levels vary around 0.5 mg/L, but can also be as high as 20 mg/L in coastal waters, and at the continental shelf."

"The total DOC in seawater is [estimated at] 0.7 mg C/L, and is a major reservoir of organic carbon. In coastal waters, because of increased phytoplankton activity and the input from land, DOC values can be as high as 20 mg/L."

"The [in-ocean] production of DOC is led by the phytoplankton, via exudation ["giving off"] and cell lysis [breakage]. The role of phytoplankton in DOC production is also important in other natural water bodies like lakes, where such release is of ecological significance because the DOC released provides a source of energy to heterotrophic [without light] consumers and decomposers. The release of DOC by phytoplankton is also considered to be a functional response of individual cells to changes in environmental conditions. In addition to phytoplankton, planktonic grazers like copepods and protist grazers also contribute to DOC production via excretion [waste]. Other marine organisms also excrete DOC via their wastes, and the decomposition of their dead bodies by microorganisms like bacteria and fungi."

"Carbohydrates account for 5 to 10 percent of the DOC in seawater. All forms of planktonic cells (phytoplankton and zooplankton) consist of 10 to 70 percent carbohydrate, and the DOC they release into the water column has a 30 percent component as carbohydrate. The contribution by carbohydrates to DOC has not been considered significant in the past, because of the insensitive analytical techniques used for their measurement. The carbohydrates identified were predominantly polysaccharides. Carbohydrates are highly reactive [substances], and they support heterotrophic metabolism [consumption by animals, like corals]."

"Apart from fulvic and humic acids, there is another subclass of humic substances known as hydrophilic acids. [...] In seawater, hydrophilic acids constitute 50 percent of the DOC. However, since the hydrophilic acids have been isolated only recently [in 1999], very little is known about their structures and chemistry."

"The metabolic activities of marine organisms also results in the production of a range of biomolecules that form part of DOC in the ocean. These compounds (biomolecules) include hydrocarbons, lipids, carboxylic acids and amino acids. These compounds usually constitute 10 to 20 percent of the total DOC in most natural water bodies. [...] Apart from these, there are other trace compounds like aldehydes, sterols, organic bases, organic sulfur compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, chlorophyll and other pigments, and organic contaminants that are present as DOC in estuarine and marine coastal waters."

"DOC plays an important role in the bio-geochemistry of any aquatic system, because it is a component of the total carbon which is cycled through organisms, the water body, sediments and plants. Therefore the bulk analysis of water for DOC is essential for the overall understanding of the production-decomposition cycle, and the [time and place] variability of DOC in an aquatic system."

"The tissue of all plants and animals in the marine and estuarine waters have significant amounts of carbon. The carbon is taken primarily in the dissolved state [DOC] by the organisms. In other words, DOC in aquatic ecosystems provides energy and carbon for the metabolism of heterotrophic bacteria, plus some species of phytoplankton which can subsist heterotrophically on dissolved organic [substances] [instead of just light]. Marine organisms also release DOC compounds to control some aspects of their environment. The released compounds can function as toxins to repel predators and competitors, neutralize toxins and to function as attractants for mating. [And these compounds are consumed by bacteria and corals as well]."

"DOC in the form of humic substances have phenolic, hydroxyl and carboxylic groups that can chelate with toxic metal ions like mercury, aluminum and lead. When toxic metals bind to DOC, their toxicity is reduced. This is because dissolved metal ions (free metal ions) are more toxic compared to their complexed form. In aquatic systems, the complexation processes of metal ions by DOC also results in the transport of the metal ions through the uptake of the complexed DOC by organisms, and the aggregation of DOC onto participate matter which eventually sink to the ocean bed [and gets buried in the sediment]."

"The chelation of essential ions like magnesium, calcium and iron is another important role of humic substances with respect to living systems in aquatic bodies like the sea. In the chelated form, the essential ions can be taken in by living organisms, and furthermore, chelation prevents the essential ions from precipitating [onto the sea floor]."

"DOC, primarily in the form of humic and fulvic acids, binds organic pollutants such as phthalates and pesticides as in the case of heavy metals. Humic acids have a greater affinity for hydrophobic compounds than fulvic acids. In addition, unlike fulvic acids, humic acid's binding ability is not affected by large changes in pH. This is because fulvic acids are soluble throughout the entire pH range; therefore they are available for binding with suitable metal centers and organic pollutants."




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Old 11/11/2010, 11:36 AM   #256
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That's excellent news. Here I always thought it was a protective response and that they were all really mad at me.

I wonder what this forum would think about using blood as a coral food? Red blood cells are appx 8 microns in size. And while they are not the best source of protein they do have some proteins that I'm sure biological organisms would eat. Blood is plentiful, and can be relatively easy to get. The saline in our tanks nearly mimincs the human osmolality so they would stay intact for quite some time, at least enough to find their way to a coral or other filter feeder.

About the only thing I can think they would be missing is the calcium in the exoskeletons of the plankton.

.....discuss.....

Aaron
Atack of the Vampire Corals!!



I'm thinking a cross between Seymore (Little shop of horrors) and TrueBlood.


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Old 11/14/2010, 12:15 PM   #257
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Blood food! Just make a donation to you tank each week


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Old 11/15/2010, 02:03 PM   #258
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Blood food! Just make a donation to you tank each week
Blood has been used in feeding aquariums for a long long time. It's more a public aquarium deal, but it's still be used for a rather long time


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Old 11/20/2010, 01:01 AM   #259
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"[The following study is meant to address the thought which some reefers have, that DOC "build ups" in a closed systems. DOC is actually consumed by bacteria, whether the system be closed or open.]"

"Bacterioplankton carbon growth yield and DOC turnover in some coral reef lagoons. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1997.

"DOC [dissolved organic carbon, not to be confused with GAC which is granular activated carbon] is widely recognized as one of the largest carbon standing stocks [amounts] on the earth; but still, little is known about DOC utilization by bacterioplankton [bacteria in the water column, not on sand or rocks] and its subsequent transfer in pelagic [water column] foodwebs. The estimation of Carbon Growth Yield (C.G.Y.) is key to the evaluation of the contribution of bacterioplankton in pelagic [water column] networks. We examined DOC standing stocks [amounts], consumption, and turn-over in some Tuamotu atoll lagoons (French Polynesia) [these are basically "closed systems"], and in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon (Fiji) [these are semi-closed systems]. [...] Results of these experiments show that average DOC values range between 105 and 121 uM in the lagoons visited, and were significantly higher compared to surrounding surface oceanic waters (87-102 uM). [...] Bacterial CGY [Carbon Growth Yield] is very low, and ranges between 4 and 7 percent. DOC turnover is estimated to be 11 to 32 days in the lagoons visited. These data suggest that bacteria are resource-limited in these lagoons. This is in agreement with the slow growth rates of bacterioplankton in these coral reef lagoons. [This means that the bacteria in the water column (not on the sand or rocks) consume the DOC faster than the DOC is produced, thus keeping the DOC at low levels, and that the bacteria would grow faster if more DOC were available.]"

"Growth of planktonic bacteria [which corals eat] is highly dependent upon the supply of inorganic nutrients [Nitrate, Phosphate] and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), either directly or through POM [particulate organic matter] solubilization by exoenzymes [enzymes which break down the particles]. This is an important function of heterotrophic [not using light] bacteria, as this carbon pool would be otherwise lost for the trophic [food] networks. While DOC is admitted to be one of the largest carbon standing stocks [amounts] on the Earth, at present time [1997] few studies have focused on utilization of natural DOC by bacterioplankton, the first step by which DOC reaches the upper levels of food webs [DOC -> bacteria -> microbes -> zooplankton -> corals]. The efficiency of transformation of DOC into bacterial biomass [bacteria consume the DOC], here referred as bacterial carbon growth yield (CGY), is a crucial parameter in attempts to evaluate the fate of primary production and [outside] inputs in aquatic systems."

"Very few studies [as of 1997] have dealt with DOC in coral reef environments. And to our knowledge, in atoll or island lagoons, bacterioplankton CGY and DOC turnover have not been yet investigated. The goal of this study was to examine DOC standing stock, turnover, and [DOC's ability to change] in some coral reef lagoons."

"This work was carried out as part of several programs intending to describe the water column biological productivity of coral reef lagoons. The work on Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon was performed in May 1994. Bacterioplankton variables and DOC concentrations were determined at 10 sites from samples collected at 10 meters depth (stations are 20 to 40 meters deep). Samples were collected at an oceanic station up to a depth of 100 meters. In Takapoto lagoon, samples were collected daily at 0.5 meters depth from 16 to 25 January 1994 at two stations. Samples were collected from 8 other stations in late January 1994. In Tikehau lagoon, samples were collected daily from 16 May to 3 June 1993 at 0.5 meters depth at the lagoon reference station (total depth 20 meters) which is representative of the main part of Tikehau lagoon (average depth 25 meters). Oceanic water (0.5 meters) samples were collected on the southern part of the atoll."


"Table 1 [simplified]

Site...........................................DOC (uM)

Tikehau lagoon............................105
Takapoto lagoon..........................121
Great Astrolabe lagoon..................114
Ocean near Tikehau (surface).........87
Ocean near Tikehau (0-40 deep).....102 "


"[In-ocean] DOC turn-over, due to bacterioplankton consumption, may be estimated from bacterial production (BP) and bacterioplankton carbon growth yield (CGY) which was determined in [the laboratory]. Bacterial carbon consumption (BCC) would thus equal BP/CGY. In the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon, with an average BP of 4.32 ugC per liter per day, and a CGY of 6.6 percent, BCC = 4.32/0.066 = 65 ugC per liter per day [thus bacteria are consuming 65 micrograms of DOC per liter per day]. DOC turnover rate would thus equal 65/1372 = 0.048 per day, and DOC turnover time would be 1/0.048 = 21 days [thus the entire amount of DOC in the lagoon would be depleted by bacteria in 21 days]."

"A calculation for Tikehau and Takapoto lagoons would give turnover times of 13 and 35 days, respectively [for all the DOC to be depleted by bacteria]."

"DOC values in the 3 lagoons visited are close to the values determined in comparable environments (Table 3). In the oceanic sites, values ranging from 87 to 110 uM are in the range reported for Pacific surface waters."


"Table 3: DOC concentrations in Pacific surface waters and in some coral reef lagoons [simplified]:

Site............................................................DOC

Pacific near Eniwetok.....................................86
Pacific near Houtman Abrolhos atoll lag. (Aust)...13-33
West Pacific.................................................101
Equatorial Pacific (1989).................................125-225
Station Aloha Hawaii......................................90-115
Equatorial Pacific (1992).................................63-67
Pacific near Miyako Island...............................93
Pacific surface near Tikehau............................87
Pacific (0-40 meters deep) near G. Astro. Rf......110
Mauro Atoll lagoon.........................................145
Ponape Island lagoon.....................................223
Eniwetok atoll lagoon.....................................100
Houtman Abrolhos atoll lagoon (Australia)..........130-305
Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii......................................148
Bora Bay, Miyako Island..................................84
Wreck Reef..................................................64
Tikehau lagoon.............................................105
Takapoto lagoon...........................................121
Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon............................114 "


"At the oceanic station near the Great Astrolabe Reef, dissolved organic carbon decreases from the surface to 100 meters depth (Figure 4), while bacterioplankton characteristics show a classical vertical [increase] pattern with a maximum abundance in surface water, and a maximum activity in deeper layers, in relation to phytoplankton maximum production [which is a little bit below the surface; thus the most bacteria activity is where there is the most algae]."

"Total DOC turnover in the lagoons visited ranges from 2 to 5 weeks. This is consistent with the long turnover time of bacteria in the three lagoons visited (4 to 8 days), regarding the average temperatures around 30 degrees C."

"The comparison between total DOC decrease and bacterial biomass increase [in the laboratory] allowed the estimation of bacterial Carbon Growth Yield consistent in three different coral lagoon waters. [...] The low CGY values confirm the importance of bacterioplankton in the mineralization processes [the conversion of organics to inorganics] occurring in coral reef waters. Such low CGY values are an index of bottom-up limitation of bacterioplankton growth in the coral reef lagoons, and are in agreement with the low bacterial growth rates (turnover times of 4 to 8 days), considering an average temperature of 30 degrees C. This [slow bacterial growth] could be due to a poor availability of either organic carbon, or inorganic nutrients. [Thus, the bacteria are ready and able to grow more, and consume more DOC, but they are limited by either not enough DOC or inorganics]."




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Old 11/20/2010, 02:35 PM   #260
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if you ever get a chance to use a microscope to watch coral polyps (especially SPS) use their chemicals to zap and eat pods, you'll understand. A polyp senses a pod (some polyps actually chase pods), and then it stings the pod with chemicals; it then wraps around it with a sticky net and pulls the pod into the "stomach" of the coral where the pod gets digested over the next couple of hours.

uhh...no. Nope. They don't sting with chemicals. They use nematocysts. Its a physical process. You can see a video on youtube.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zJiBc_N1Zk


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Old 11/20/2010, 03:17 PM   #261
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Cool video! Do those spikes secrete anything or do they just grab their prey that way?


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Old 11/22/2010, 01:47 AM   #262
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Ahhh... that's one of the vids I posted


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Old 12/01/2010, 12:15 PM   #263
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"[A little more background on DOC; it is usually "limiting" in reef waters, meaning that bacteria would consume much more of it, and thus the bacteria would grow to much larger numbers, if more DOC were available. Corals, of course, would consume much more DOC and bacteria if either one were available. So it is important to remember that not only does DOC/DOM not build up in reef or aquarium water, it is actually kept low by the bacteria, and also by the high concentration of corals that some reefers keep in their tanks. More DOC (and bacteria) would be beneficial.]"


"Phytoplankton exudation of organic matter: Why do healthy cells do it? American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 1988."

"Although the reality of exudation from active phytoplankton [algae] cells seems to be generally accepted, understanding the physiological mechanism behind it [in 1988] is still lacking. Exudation has been implicitly interpreted as the active release of excess photosynthates [DOC] that accumulate when carbon fixation [photosynthesis] exceeds incorporation into new cell material [algae growth]."

"Phytoplankton exudates are rapidly used by planktonic bacteria, which are [also] able to take up inorganic nutrients more efficiently than phytoplankton [and this further helps reduce nitrate and phosphate]."

"Phytoplankton are often dominated by a wide range of low molecular weight compounds, including amino acids with high amounts of nitrogen."

"Several studies on the uptake of radio-labeled compounds [algae exudates] by natural plankton assemblages [zooplankton] have shown bacterioplankton to be responsible for the entire uptake of the [...] organic compounds. This observation is as expected if the exudates are rapidly dispersed, because bacteria account for most of the overall [algal] cell surface in natural planktonic communities."


"Extracellular organic carbon (EOC) released by phytoplankton and bacterial production. Oikos, 1985"

"Parts of the pelagic [water column] carbon cycle were investigated during ten [daily] cycles in five Danish lakes and one coastal area. The study included simultaneous measurements of primary production, phytoplankton release, and bacterial assimilation of extracellular organic carbon (EOC) [DOC], bacterial production and bacterial assimilation of dissolved free amino acids. The primary production, EOC release, and assimilation were measured with the carbon-14 method and a particle-size fractionation. The gross release of EOC [DOC] ranged from 5 to 46 percent of the [daily] primary production, and the major part of the released products were assimilated by bacteria. [...] In the lakes the assimilation of EOC [DOC] contributed substantially (greater than 80 percent) to the bacterial production in three cases, moderately (38 to 50 percent) in three cases, and was of less (less than 38 percent) importance in one case."


"Utilization of dissolved organic carbon from different sources by pelagic bacteria in an acidic mining lake. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 2006"

"We compared growth rates and efficiencies of pelagic [water column] bacteria from an extremely acidic mining lake (pH 2.6, mean depth 4.6 meters), supplied with different sources of carbon [DOC]: (1) excreted by phytoplankton, (2) derived from benthic [sea floor] algae, (3) entering the lake via ground water, and (4) leached from leaf litter. Bacteria exhibited high growth rate and efficiency on exudates of pelagic and benthic algae. In contrast, they showed a lower growth rate and efficiency with organic carbon from ground water, and grew at a very high rate but a very low efficiency on leaf leachate. Results from stable isotope analyses indicate a greater importance of benthic exudates [DOC from solid algae] and leaf leachate for bacteria in the [upper layer of water], and a higher impact of ground water sources in the [lower layers of water]. Given the magnitude of differential source inputs into the lake, we suggest that benthic primary production was the most important carbon source for pelagic bacteria. [i.e., bacteria prefer to consume DOC from "solid" algae, compared to phytoplankton]"




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Old 12/02/2010, 08:23 PM   #264
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Vote for December's Thread of the Month!

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Old 12/04/2010, 05:37 PM   #265
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Old 12/05/2010, 03:36 PM   #266
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"[This next-to-last focus on DOC uses amino acids as the research topic. Amino's are one of the DOC's that feed corals directly, and also indirectly via bacteria and microbe growth, and thus are kept at low levels in reef waters.]"

"Close coupling between release and uptake of dissolved free amino acids in seawater studied by an isotope dilution approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1987"

"Dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs) play a major role in the [movement] of organic carbon and nitrogen in marine biotic systems. In this study, DFAA release and uptake rates in samples from Long Island Sound and the Atlantic continental shelf were measured [...]. Numerous measurements over a 20 month period showed that release and uptake rates were usually similar, and net changes in DFAA concentration were much slower than (typically less than 30 percent of) the gross uptake or release rates; this indicates close coupling between these two processes. DFAA turnover was rapid, with summer turnover times typically 0.5 hours or less, and concentrations of individual DFAAs were usually a few nanomolar [this means the entire amount of amino DOC's are consumed in 30 minutes]. Comparisons of total uptake rates with estimates of bacterial heterotrophic production confirm that DFAAs represent a significant source (greater than 10 percent) of carbon and nitrogen for bacterial growth. DFAA release, mediated by copepods either through 'sloppy feeding' or by excretion, can be of comparable magnitude to direct release by microplankton."

"In recent years [1987] it has been found that as much as 60 percent of total primary production in planktonic marine ecosystems cycles through bacterioplankton [the carbon cycle], primarily via dissolved organic matter (DOM). Uptake of DOM has been studied for many years; however it is probably the rate of release of DOM that controls the amount available to bacteria, so understanding the release processes is an important goal."

"In experiments with copepods, these animals were collected from Long Island Sound with a plankton net, and swimming individuals of the species Acartia tonsa were picked out by pipette and manipulated with acid washed nitex netting."

"Copepods released DFAAs, both in the presence and absence of other smaller plankton, but the release rate was higher when there were microplankton available for copepod feeding."

"As the building blocks of proteins, DFAAs are one of the largest single classes of monomers used by all organisms, making them important sources of carbon and nitrogen for bacteria. [Thus they are eaten rapidly by bacteria]"

"The copepod experiments were designed to see if processes related to zooplankton feeding have an effect on DFAA release. The results showed that the combination of copepods+food had a much higher release rate than either one alone. This suggests that the processes of 'sloppy feeding', ingestion, and egestion cause release of DFAAs into seawater [by the copepods]."

"It was a general phenomenon in virtually all of our experiments that the net changes in DFAA concentrations were very slow (30 percent or less) compared to the gross release and uptake rates. In other words, the bacterial DFAA utilization rates closely corresponded to the rates at which the DFAAs were released, so the DFAAs neither accumulated nor disappeared appreciably compared to the changes one would expect from release or uptake alone. Similar results were found when DFAA release and uptake were measured at much shorter intervals over [daily] cycles. This suggests good regulatory mechanisms whereby the bacteria use the DFAAs as rapidly as they become available."




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Old 12/14/2010, 11:42 PM   #267
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"[In this last focus on DOC, the point is hopefully made that DOC is kept at low levels in water due to the consumption by planktonic bacteria, i.e, the bacteria in the water column. If a new source of DOC emerges which tries to increase DOC levels, bacterial growth increases too, keeping the DOC in check. The bacteria, of course, then feed the rest of the food chain which feeds the corals. And this is in addition to the bacteria and DOC feeding the corals directly.]"

"Biomass, production and heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon (Fiji). Coral Reefs, 1999."

"Biomass, production and heterotrophic [eating] activity of bacterioplankton were determined for two weeks in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon, Fiji. Bacteria and bacterial activities were distributed homogeneously throughout the water column (20 to 40 meters deep), and varied little from site to site inside the lagoon. [...] Growth efficiency, determined by correlating the net increase of bacterial biomass, and the net decrease of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in dilution cultures, was very low (average 6.6 percent). [...]. The turn-over rate of DOC due to bacterial consumption was estimated to be 0.048 per day during the period of study. [About 5 percent of DOC was consumed each day]"

"Planktonic bacteria make important contributions to the bio-geochemical cycles of marine pelagic [water column] ecosystems. In most oceanic environments, bacterial production [growth] represents a significant proportion of primary production [although it is actually "secondary production"], and in the most [low dissolved nutrient] environments, bacterial biomass may even exceed phytoplankton biomass. In coral reef environments, bacterioplankton have been studied mostly in the water column overlying coral reefs, while atoll and island lagoons have received less attention. Atoll and island lagoons may, however, represent large bodies of water where heterotrophic bacterioplankton with low carbon-to-nitrogen ratios relative to the phytoplankton, could be an important contributor to particulate nitrogen [amounts]. Nutrient recycling is essential in coral reef areas [no relying on water changes], often characterized by low concentrations and inputs of new nutrients. Hence, the understanding of bacterioplankton dynamics is essential to studies of carbon and nutrient cycling in coral reef environments."

"Vertical and spatial distributions of bacterioplankton abundance and production were investigated during a two week cruise on the ORSTOM R/V Alis from 18 to 29 May 1994. [...] Free and attached bacterioplankton, production, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in selected samples."

"Bacterioplankton carbon growth yield (CGY) was estimated for the same cultures by correlating DOC consumption with the increase of bacterial biomass."

"DOC concentrations decreased significantly (see figure 4) within the cultures, while bacterial [mass] increased."

"The whole heterotrophic bacterioplankton community (free + attached) had an average specific growth rate of 0.282 per day, and therefore an average generation time of 1/0.282 = 3.6 days."

"Total DOC turnover [elimination] due to bacterioplankton consumption may be estimated from bacterial production (BP) and bacterioplankton carbon growth yield (CGY) determined in the two dilution cultures. Bacterial carbon consumption (BCC) would thus equal BP/CGY. With an average BP of 0.36 ug-at carbon per liter per day, and a CGY of 6.6 percent, BCC equals 0.36/0.066 = 5.5 ug-at carbon per liter per day. Hence, DOC turn-over rate equals 5.5/114 = 0.048 per day, and total DOC turn-over time is 1/0.048 = 21 days [for complete consumption]."

"The two independent determinations allowed the estimation of an average CGY of 6.6 percent. [...] This low CGY value determined in the present study could be interpreted as an index of severe bottom-up limitation of bacterioplankton [i.e., the DOC, which is the food source for the bacteria, is not nearly enough to allow the bacteria to continue growing]."

"The average generation time for the whole bacterioplanktonic community was 3.6 days. This is quite long compared to those estimated over coral reefs, but is in agreement with those determined in atoll lagoons. This long generation time could be explained by a resource limitation of bacteria [not enough DOC to be consumed]."

"Bacterioplankton demand for DOC was estimated to average 5.4 ug-at carbon per liter per day for the period of study. Integrated from the surface to the bottom of the lagoon, the average demand for the 10 stations investigated was 126 mg-at carbon per square meter per day, and was therefore nearly equal to primary production [by algae] during the same period. The net production of bacterial biomass was low compared to particulate primary production (8 percent), but the low estimated growth yield shows that the heterotrophic activity of bacteria was nearly equivalent to primary production. This confirms the importance of bacterioplankton to the remineralization processes in the water column of coral reef lagoons. ["Remineralization" is the conversion of organics, like DOC, into inorganics like nitrate and phosphate]"

"While bacterial growth rates have been frequently reported to be higher inside island or atoll lagoons than in surrounding oceanic waters, lagoon DOC concentrations may be similar, as in this work, or even lower than those of oceanic waters."

"In conclusion, in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon, [...] bacterial biomass constituted a significant proportion of POC, and was in the same range as phytoplankton biomass. Heterotrophic demand was of the same order as primary production. The low average growth rate for the bacterioplanktonic community, at an average temperature of about 28 C, and the poor carbon growth yield (6.6 percent), both suggest bacterioplankton to be resource-limited in this lagoon. [...] All these features are consistent with a bottom-up limitation of bacterioplankton."

"[For those interested in a book about DOC, the one to get would be 'Aquatic Ecosystems: Interactivity Of Dissolved Organic Matter', which talks about the types of studies we have covered here, for both fresh and saltwater. It is available as a hardcover book and also as individual PDF chapters:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780122563713 ]"




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Old 12/18/2010, 02:26 PM   #268
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Originally Posted by capecoral
if you ever get a chance to use a microscope to watch coral polyps (especially SPS) use their chemicals to zap and eat pods, you'll understand. A polyp senses a pod (some polyps actually chase pods), and then it stings the pod with chemicals; it then wraps around it with a sticky net and pulls the pod into the "stomach" of the coral where the pod gets digested over the next couple of hours.




Quote:
Originally Posted by acropora1981 View Post
uhh...no. Nope. They don't sting with chemicals. They use nematocysts. Its a physical process. You can see a video on youtube.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zJiBc_N1Zk
Errr...that video is of a JELLYFISH...not an Acropora. BIG DIFFERENCE my friend...nice try though...

Here is the excerpt from the YouTube video you posted....
"NinjaSquid — April 26, 2007 —
Microscopic video footage of jellyfish nematocysts firing. The video was created by the TASRU (Tropical Australian Stinger Research Unit) of James Cook University. The video shows nematocysts along a section of tentacle from Carukia barnesi (Irukandji jellyfish) discharging after artificial stimulation. The image has been filmed through a microscope and is magnified about 400 times."


I agree with cape coral.

http://reefkeeping.com/issues/2002-12/eb/index.php

.....


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Old 01/04/2011, 11:27 PM   #269
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Primary Production - Video Introduction

Now we would like to get to the base of how all oceans and lakes work: Primary Production. But before getting into the research papers, we thought it would be easier and more fun for the typical reefer to start with videos. In searching youtube for months for good, basic information for reefers, we decided that the follow videos are by far the most instructive. They are from an oceanography class, and there are a lot of them (even just the ones about Primary Production), so we won't post them all at once. So following will be just the videos from that course that have been selected in a certain order to give the best focus on how the concepts of Primary Production can be used for your tank.

One thing to keep in mind: These videos are about the oceans and lakes, and thus the focus of the Primary Production is on phytoplankton. In your tank, however, the focus is instead on solid algae, because you do not have enough water volume to hold much phytoplankton. So when he says phytoplankton, just think of solid algae instead. This works for almost all the topics in all the videos, starting with this one:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfMaBeLwiO4


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Old 01/11/2011, 09:44 AM   #270
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Continued...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7d96F0ak4uY


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Old 01/11/2011, 10:01 AM   #271
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jc-reef View Post
Errr...that video is of a JELLYFISH...not an Acropora. BIG DIFFERENCE my friend...nice try though...
None the less; coral and cnidarian stings are a physical process first, followed by a chemical process sting - not the other way around.

Nice try though.


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Old 01/11/2011, 11:02 AM   #272
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So I'm still curious. Obviously a ULNS is not optimal for coral growth without somehow additing bacteria or having a bacteria producing source (is this why zeovit is successful?), and otherwise, feeding of corals can be accomplished by several methods but the purpose is not to provide a nutriend rich tank but rather a food-source-rich supply of phyto, via addition of rotifers and the like or shrimp that do the humpty-dumpty on a frequent basis. Obviously too much detritus is detrimental to the health of the tank via too much nutrients creating algae issues.

However, the use of algae in the tank is beneficial, which I can see in the use of macro in the 'fuge. Problem is, which macro to use? I've never had luck with chaeto.

My fuge will contain a sb of approx. 3-4" depth, I will have LR rubble in there and some snails to keep detritus to a minimum. Fuge is fed by the return pump which means post-skimmer water to minimize detritus buildup.

As for coral feeding: I'm thinking a couple pairs of shrimp in the linked frag propagation tank as well as a large fish load, accompanied by a skimmer, but I'd like a suggestion for a bacteria source?


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Old 01/11/2011, 12:24 PM   #273
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my 2 cents to this thread: The single most beneficial thing I did to my tank to increase coral growth was add a diamond goby; I'm guessing the constant sand sifting leaves a constant supply of suspended particles in the water (but not so much that it affects the water clarity) This is just my hypothesis, but my corals have been thriving since the addition. Just a theory.


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Old 01/14/2011, 08:41 AM   #274
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I think the bacteria grow from the stuff from the algae.


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Old 01/21/2011, 07:22 AM   #275
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“Continued:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WTBlq3gUv5Y


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